PSIM:Push-Pull Converter. 2 reviews for Simplified Model of DC DC Buck Boost Converter sara – June 16, 2016 helloMy project is about buck boost converter 48v to 12v with P=3Kw and I=210A i tried to draw my buck boost in pspice but i have a problem i don’t get the right result i need your help pleas.

Pete Millett's DIY Audio pages

For technical books, tube data, vintage data, transformer data, and McIntosh data, go

Last update: 3/9/21 - Posted a 4D32 SE UL amp

Examples of non-isolated DC-DC inverters are Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost, Cuk and SEPIC converter. In contrast, examples of isolated converters are Push-pull, Forward, Flyback, Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge converters. The main agent responsible for converting DC-DC conversion in non-isolated converter is a controlled switch. Software and hardware for simulation of SMPS, motor drives and all your power electronics needs. Fast circuit simulation with PSIM & DSIM. A simple push-pull DC/DC converter with a fixed 50% duty cycle is often used as a low noise transformer driver in communication systems, medical instruments and distributed power supplies. This simple scheme provides no voltage regulation—requiring a low dropout (LDO) post regulator—a combination that presents potentially serious problems.

4/9/19 - Added a Nutube balanced (differential) amp for headpohone or line amp use

Push Pull Converter Pspice Student

PLEASE READ - Commercial usage of information on this site:

I consider all the information that I post here to be in the public domain. So, you can use it however you want, for commercial or non-commercial use.

That said, I would appreciate it if you at least let me know if you are going to use any of the circuits or especially PCB Gerber files to make commercial products, or to sell bare PCB's.

There are some cases where products are being sold not only with my permission, but active involvement. The 'Millett Hybrid' effort and others at HeadFi are examples (and excellent models of how the DIY community should work, in my opinion). There are other cases where I have asked vendors to sell PCB's as a service to hobbyists. And there are other cases where companies are manufacturing and selling PCB's, chassis, etc. without contacting me at all.

In ALL of these cases, I make no profit from any of the sales. Zero, zip, nada. I have a normal 'day job' that pays the bills, this is strictly a hobby with me. So please do not expect me to provide the level of technical support that you might expect when buying a product. I try and help, but it sometimes takes me days - even weeks if I'm traveling for work - to respond.

Thanks for your indulgence in reading this!

All that said... I do sell things, including projects I no longer need, PC boards for my designs, and occasionally parts and tubes. I do this through eBay - I maintain an eBay store 'pmillett'. You can click here to see what I may be selling at the moment.

This is a depository for various audio designs and projects - mostly tube - that I've put in the public domain, as well as additional info to support magazine articles that I've written, and an ever-growing amount of technical data archives relating to vintage and tube audio. I'm constantly adding and updating things, so come back every once in a while and see what's new. Remember: you may have to hit the 'refresh ' button to see the updated versions of pages!

Follow the links below for detailed info.... Most pictures are hyper-linked to full-size pictures, so you can zoom in if you click on them.

If you have questions please feel free to e-mail me at:

Please, if you send me e-mail, make sure that there is a logical 'subject', or your mail will get dumped along with all the junk mail (spam) that I get - it's up to about 100 junk e-mails per day now. If I don't respond within a few days, try again, just in case I missed your message. I try and return everybody's mail within a week, though I travel quite a lot for work and find I get very behind at times. Please be patient...

Standard disclaimer: This info is provided with no guarantees as to accuracy, usefulness, etc. There's no guarantee that if you try and build anything like this stuff that you won't electrocute yourself, the kids, or your cat, or burn your house down... especially if you don't know what you're doing. Be careful!

Many files on this site, especially scanned documentation, are in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. I recommend that if you don't already have it you download the latest version of Adobe reader. Some files have compressed images that may not work correctly with older versions of Acrobat reader.

Scanned vintage books, manuals, catalogs, papers...

Please go to for this material.

Audio projects and experiments:

Power amps

The 'NuclassD' 50W class-D hybrid amp using the nutube

A hybrid (SS driver) class A2 DHT amp

A 50 watt monoblock version of the 'Engineer's Amp'

A PL177 single-ended amplifier

'La Luxuriante' stereo R120 SE amp

'Fatboy', a low-distortion zero-feedback push-pull 300B amp

A compactron triple-triode driver for push-pull amps

'Mr. Potatohead' 815 amp - 50W from 2 tubes in class AB2

The '807' Push-Pull amp using driver boards below

Push-pull driver PCB, a (nearly) universal driver for push-pull amps

'Jonokuchi', a single-ended tube headphone / speaker amp

Class-A2 1636 amp using a power opamp driver

The 'Engineer's Amplifier', an affordable, high-performance push-pull TV pentode amp

The 'Unnecessarily Complex 300B Amplifier' (from audioXpress 2009)

'The Mighty Midget' (from audioXpress 5/08)

'A Single-Ended E-Linear Amp' (from audioXpress 4/05)

813 single-ended triode amp with microprocessor-controlled power supply

Preamps / Line Stages

A Nutbe Balanced Amp - a true diferential amp for line stage or headphone amp use

A buffer PCB using the Korg Nutube 6P1 low-voltage DHT

'el escorpion', a simple line stage in a cigar box that runs off of 12VDC

A solid-state LR phono preamp (no caps in the EQ) from ETF.13

A high-end Tube Microphone Preamp

'A Low-mu preamp' (from AudioXpress 2/04)

Headphone Amps

The NuHybrid headphone amp, a hybrid headphone amp using the Korg Nutube

The DIY 'Butte' solid-state headphone amp

'Jonokuchi', a single-ended tube headphone / speaker amp

Push Pull Converter Pspice Student Version

Low-voltage tube hybrid headphone amp - the original 'Millett Hybrid' amp (from AudioXpress 11/02)

Test equipment

Abreakout board for banana cables

An audio dummy load

A 'Sound Card Interface / AC RMS Voltmeter' you can build

Software for the HP 8903 audio analyzer - Make professional plots from this affordable audio test system!

Other stuff

DC Power supply board used with the NuclassD or class AB power amps (look down the page)

Opamp power supply (used with the LR Phono, look down the page)

Voltage selector PCB for transformers like the Hammond 300-series with multi-voltage primaries

A power supply PCB for B+ supplies using the Tentlabs MEC Mini Electronic Choke

A linear 'USB adapter', a 5W power supply

A power (AC) sequencing board for big amplifiers

A 10W B+ flyback supply (switching power supply) that runs off of low-voltage DC (5-20V)

Muting relay PCB to eliminate the 'thumps'

A two-channel shunt-regulated adjustable bias supply

High-voltage regulator ('Maida' regulator) that fits Landfall Systems heatsink

Tube amp power supply PCB with bias supply

An isolated current sensor board to measure plate current using a PanelPilot meter

MOSFET follower buffer for class-A2 grid drive

an Opamp experimenter board

Speaker projects:

Downloadable drawings for 'An Affordable Full-Range Speaker Project', AudioXpress 6/03 (uses Fostex FE-164)

Glass Audio and AudioXpress articles:

audioXpress has been gracious enough to allow me to reproduce here some of the articles that I've written for Glass Audio and AudioXpress magazines in their entirety:

'A Low-Mu triode Preamp' (1.3MB PDF file) from AudioXpress 02/04

'Build A Low-Voltage Tube Hybrid Headphone/Line Amp' (612kB PDF file) from AudioXpress 11/02 - the original 'Millett Hybrid'.

'Power Transformers For Audio Equipment' (1.3MB PDF file) from AudioXpress 6/01

'All About Wire' (476kB PDF file) from AudioXpress 8/01

'The Power Line Interface' (1.3MB PDF file) from Glass Audio 6/00

Miscellaneous technical information:

'LR Phono Preamps' presentation from ETF.13 (PDF or PPT)

Where to get stuff - an assorted list of some of my suppliers

Tektronix power transformer information - Info I've collected on classic tube-type Tektronix power transformers

Push Pull Converter Pspice Student Login

ResCalc, a cool utility program you can download that calculates combinations of standard resistors to get a particular value.

Parts shopping in Asia (sorry, getting a bit out of date)

Other non-audio stuff:

A picture collection of interesting old QSL cards that I received in the early 1970's.

Who I am:

A lifetime electronics geek, I got a ham radio license at the age of 8 and a first-class commercial radio license at 14. I'm just old enough that I actually build and used tube some stuff when it was still in production. I've been an electrical engineer for nearly thirty years, doing mostly computer and consumer electronics design work. I owned and operated Wheatfield Audio, which made tube headphone amps (but no money!) for a few years. I also have written articles for AudioXpress magazine (formerly Glass Audio) on occasion.

I do some commercial audio design work outside of my 'day job'. Some of my work includes the Apex Hi-Fi product line, which is sold by TTVJ (Todd the Vinyl Junkie).

I'm currently living near Fort Collins, Colorado, and work for a Silicon Valley semiconductor company.

Push Pull Converter Pspice Student Download

These are the Wheatfield Audio HA-1 and HA-2 tube headphone amps, which I designed a long time ago:

I've put some info from the old Wheatfield Audio web site here that might be useful, especially if you own an HA-1 or HA-2.

Engineers are familiar with the term Switched Mode Power Supply or SMPS. Once it is understood that what SMPS actually is, its countless applications can be easily imagined.
An SMPS is used for converting the electronic power supply efficiently. It is used to supply power to sensitive devices that require stable power supply with high efficiency. Any SMPS has some storage components which store electrical energy to supply to the load device and some switching components which turn on and off at high frequencies charging and discharging the storage components.
The power is supplied to the load device by discharge of the storage component when the switching component is in non-conduction state. The use of switching regulators makes the SMPS different from the linear regulators. The SMPS can be AC to DC, DC to DC, AC to AC or DC to AC supply. In this series on designing SMPS, AC to DC and DC to DC SMPS are dealt.
The switching regulators (like transistors) in SMPS continuously switches between their ON and OFF state. So they spend very less time in high dissipation state which reduces power dissipation of the system. In Linear regulators, all the power is dissipated in the form of heat which reduces the overall efficiency of the system. Due to use of switching components working at high frequency, SMPS can be made to deliver high efficiency up to 95%. SMPS can be used in place of any linear regulator when high efficiency and a small size, light weight power supply is required.
In this series, SMPS are designed by using different topologies. For designing SMPS (AC to DC type) they can be categorized as follow –
Fig. 2: Image showing Different Types of SMPS
First the SMPS can be broadly categorized in two categories –
2. Isolated SMPS
In Non–isolated SMPS the input and output share the same ground or it can be said that there is an electrical connection between the input and output. But in Isolated SMPS the input and output are isolated from each other by a transformer which gives safety from any electric shock by the input power supply (AC).
In Non-Isolated SMPS, the basic topologies of SMPS can be categorized on the basis of Input-Output Voltage as follows –
1.Boost Converter – In this SMPS, the output voltage is always greater than Input voltage.
2.Buck Converter– In this SMPS, the output voltage always less than Input voltage
3.Buck-Boost Converter– In this SMPS, the output voltage can be greater or less than the Input voltage
In Isolated SMPS, there are two topologies of SMPS which are designed in this series. They are as follows –
4. Push-pull Converter
5. Flyback Converter
Now the above mentioned topologies can be further divided into different types as follows –

1. Boost Converter or Buck Converter

In this series of SMPS, a Boost converter and Buck Converter is designed by four ways –
I. Open Loop Boost/Buck Converter- In this Boost Converter, there is no any error detection circuit or any feedback circuit. So the output voltage of this Boost Converter will be unregulated.
II. Closed Loop Boost/Buck Converter – In this Boost Converter there will be an error detection circuit or feedback circuit. This feedback circuit helps in regulating the output voltage.

Push Pull Converter Pspice Students

III.Open Loop Boost/Buck Converter with Adjustable Output –This Boost Converter will have a variable output voltage but without any error detection circuit or feedback circuit. So the output voltage of this Boost Converter will be variable but unregulated.
IV. Closed Loop Boost/Buck Converter with Adjustable Output- This Boost Converter will have a variable output voltage and a feedback circuit. So the output voltage of this Boost Converter will be variable and regulated.

2. Buck-BoostConverter

There will be two types of Buck-Boost Converters designed in this series –
I. Open Loop Inverting Buck – Boost Converter- In an Inverting Buck-Boost converter, the output voltage can be greater and less that the input voltage. The polarity of the output is opposite to the input voltage that’s why it is called Inverting Buck-Boost converter.
II. Open Loop Inverting Buck – Boost Converter with Adjustable Output
In this Buck-Boost Converter, the output voltage can be varied from the lower voltage (voltage less than input voltage) to the higher voltage level (voltage greater than input voltage).

3. Flyback converter

The Flyback converter is just like a Buck-Boost Converter, the only difference is that in Buck-Boost Converter it uses a single winding of inductor, in the Flyback converter the inductor splits into two windings which form a transformer. This gives the isolation to the output from input. In this series, a Flyback converter is designed which will step down the input voltage and give low voltage at the output.

4. Push–pull converter

An Open Loop Push-Pull converter will be designed which will be a DC to DC SMPS. This converter uses the transformer for converting one DC voltage to another level. A transformer provides the isolation between input and the output. This converter can provide either high voltage or low voltage at the output as compared to input. The number of turns of transformer and duty cycle will decide whether high voltage or low voltage is delivered at the output.
In this series, a Push-Pull converter will be designed which will step up the input voltage and give high voltage at the output
Now let us understand some basic terminologies which will be used in the designing of the SMPS –
On the basis of output current of SMPS, it can have two modes of operation –
1. Continuous Mode

1. Continuous Mode-

Usually in SMPS circuit there is an inductor at the input which decides the input current. In continuous mode, the current in the inductor is continuous in the entire cycle of the switching period. So a regulated voltage is obtained at the output in continuous mode. In continuous mode, there is some critical value of output current below which the inductor current is zero for a part of switching cycle then the system is said to be in discontinuous mode. So for the operation of continuous mode, the output is always greater than or equivalent to the critical current value.
Below is the waveform which shows the inductor current in continuous mode.
Fig. 3: Graph showing Current Variation in Continuous Conduction Mode of SMPS

2. Discontinuous mode-

In this mode, the current in the inductor is pulsating and it becomes zero for a part of switching time. The current in inductor starts with zero and reaches to peak current then again it returns to zero after completion of one switching cycle. So in this mode, the output voltage is not regulated. So, discontinuous mode needs an error detection block which regulates the output voltage.
Below is the waveform which shows the inductor current in discontinuous mode –
Fig. 4: Graph showing Current Variation in Discontinuous Conduction Mode of SMPS
In this series, each circuit will be designed in both CCM and DCM Modes and there will be the standard eqautions of CCM/DCM used for calcuting the components values.
An SMPS has several advantages over Linear Regulators. Some of the main advantages which leverage SMPS over any linear regulator are as follows –

Small size –

Any SMPS has switching components which work on high frequency. This reduces the size of components required in the circuit design of the SMPS.

• Low cost-

Because small size components are used to make the SMPS circuit, so assembling the circuit is less costly.

• High efficiency up to 95%-

Due to the use of switching regulators, the efficiency of SMPS is usually very high. An SMPS can have output efficiency up to 95%. That means, around 95% of the input power can be delivered to the output load.

• Isolation between input and output-

By using a transformer in place of inductor, the SMPS can provide good isolation. By providing the isolation between the input and output, the output load can be saved from any electrical shock or voltage fluctuation from the input supply.
The use of SMPS is not just limited to computers. They are used with most of the sensitive devices that essentially require stable and efficient power supply. They are used as low loss current source to drive LEDs and LED circuits. They are used in self-powered devices. They are also used as an interface between battery and components in CPU or notebooks where voltage demand is lower or higher than the battery voltage.
So in this series, the following SMPS circuits will be designed –
1. Boost Converters –
b) Closed Loop Boost Converter
c) Open Loop Boost Converter with Adjustable Output
d) Closed Loop Boost Converter with Adjustable Output
2. Buck Converters –
b) Closed Loop Buck Converter
c) Open Loop Buck Converter with Adjustable Output
d) Closed Loop Buck Converter with Adjustable Output
3. Buck-Boost Converters
b) Open Loop Inverting Buck – Boost Converter with Adjustable Output
4. Flyback Converter
5. Push-Pull Converter